PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTION
An image in which we can perceive something that is not physically in the image, can be interpeted in different ways or represent impossible perspectives.
GESTALT PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTION
Gestalt (which means shape in German) psychology attempts to understand psychological phenomena by viewing them as organised and structured wholes rather than the sum of their constituent parts. In the 30s and 40s Gestalt psychology was applied to visual perception, most notably by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Koffka who founded the so-called gestalt approaches to form perception. More specifically, they tried to explain human perception of groups of objects and how we perceive parts of objects and formwhole objects on the basis of these.
- LAW OF PROXIMITY: Elements of an image that are closer to each other are perceived as a figure or a group.
- LAW OF SIMILARITY: Elements of an image that are similar or the same are perceived as a unit.
- LAW OF PRÄGNANZ (PAST EXPERIENCE): The tendency to interpret ambiguous images as simple and complete, versus complex and incomplete. Reality is organized to the simplest form possible.
- LAW OF FIGURE AND BACKGROUND: In an image, figure and background cannot be perceived simultaneously.
- LAW OF CLOSURE: our sight tends to complete unfinished shapes or figures whent the contours are arranged in a continuous, specific direction.
- LAW OF CONTINUITY: Elements that are arranged in the same direction are perceived as a unit.